Here is an essay on ‘Sustainable Development’ for class 9, 10, 11, and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Sustainable Development’ particularly composed for school and college students in English.
Essay # 1. Meaning of Sustainable Development:
The term ‘sustainable development‘ was first used by the World Conservation Strategy, which was introduced in 1980 by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Means.
According to the Brundtland Report, sustainable development means meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the needs of future generations.
Therefore, sustainable development means that development should be continued. It is the creation of continuous improvement in the quality of life of all people, which can be achieved by increasing real income per capita, improving education, improving health and general quality of life, and improving the quality of natural environmental resources.
In other words, it is a situation in which economic growth does not decrease over time. It can be modified as a path of development in which the choices of future generations are not compromised by the path adopted by the present generation.
Sustainable development is the development that goes on continuously. It contributes to the quality of life by improving the natural environment. In return, it satisfies the needs of individuals, advances the economic process, and provides services that help human life.
However, in the words of Pearce and Barford – “Sustainable development is a process in which the basis of natural resources is not allowed to decay. It emphasizes the hitherto unproven role of environmental quality and also emphasizes environmental inputs in the process of increasing real income and quality of life. ”
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The World Development Report 2000 emphasizes the creation of continuous improvements in the quality of life as the main goal of the development policy for all people.
Essay # 2. Objectives of Sustainable Development:
The main objectives of sustainable development are described as follows:
1. Creating continuous improvements in the quality of life of all people.
2. Increasing economic growth by meeting basic needs ie raising the standard of living.
3. To provide an opportunity to participate in public life and help in making the environment clean.
4. Promotion of intergenerational fairness.
5. Aiming to maximize the net benefits of economic development provided that the reserves of all environmental and natural resources are protected.
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6. Aiming to intensify economic development for the preservation and enhancement of human and physical capital without harming environmental reserves and future generations.
7. Aim to achieve sustainable development so that the natural capital reserves are not reduced. In addition, weak integrity requires that the value of physical, human, and natural capital reserves is not reduced.
Essay # 3. Conditions / Measures for Sustainable Development):
The measurement of sustainable development is often difficult. This includes an assessment of environmental harm and a comparison with the costs incurred to prevent it. It faces many problems such as measurement of capital stock, accounting of natural resources, and the use of reasonable discount rates to maintain an alternative balance between the conservation and use of natural resources. However, here we will discuss the conditions for achieving sustainable development.
Which are as follows:
1. Measuring Natural Capital Stock:
The storage of natural resources, assets, or environmental property includes “fertility of the land, forests, fisheries, the potential for the inclusion of waste, oil, gas, coal, the ozone layer, and biogeochemical cycles”.
The pre-requisite condition for sustainable development is that natural capital reserves should be protected and improved. This means that the natural capital reserves must remain at least in constant condition.
This can be measured in the context of cost-benefit analyzes of changes in natural capital reserves. Similarly, when the environment is kept clean, it is beneficial for all of us.
Therefore, Sustainability means conservation and improvement of natural capital assets. Some economists are of the view that natural capital should not be given any importance and instead, man-made capital and human capital should be given more importance.
He believes that sustainable development is related to conservation and improvement, which includes all capital reserves – man-made capital and human capital. This idea was carried forward with efficiency and intergenerational equality.
Considering all the capital reserves it means natural and man-made capital. Which can be interchanged. This can be done based on the rate of social consideration.
But this happens only occasionally because the benefit of environmental degradation is consumed and not an investment. Profit from natural capital and investment in man-made capital is another problem.
Evaluation of environmental losses based on market prices is not desirable. In short, the use of shadow prices is not a net measure of environmental services.
2. Natural Resources or Green Accounting:
Another condition or measure of sustainable development is green accounting. It permits the estimation of income for a nation keeping in view the economic loss and attenuation in the natural resource base of a country.
It is a measure of sustainable income level that can be achieved without reducing the reserves of natural wealth. Therefore, it is necessary to coordinate with respect to the stock of natural property in the system of national income accounts.
The estimation of the total national product (GNP) will be replaced by the measure of national production that includes the economic cost of degradation of natural resources.
It needs to produce goods and services directly and indirectly. G. N. P. will include the stock of natural wealth and the measure of sustainable development can be NNP = GNP – DN. Where DN is the depreciation of monetary value in natural assets in a year.
But calculating such a measure of continuous income is very difficult. This is especially in the calculation of the monetary valuation of non-selling natural assets and externalities. There are many controversial calculations and evaluations in green accounting.
3. Measuring Environmental Values:
In the measurement of environmental values, another problem arises. It is related to the comparison of the benefits of environmental protection and the expenditure incurred on it. Economists have suggested four measures for the economic assessment of environmental damage in the World Development Report 1992.
Which are as follows:
(i) Market Prices:
Market value has to be evaluated in the event of loss in productivity due to adverse health effects and environmental damage. According to the method, losses due to soil erosion, deforestation, and pollution of air and water are evaluated.
For this, environmental losses and their effects on production or health are calculated on the basis of prices so that monetary values are obtained.
Welfare-related losses related to health risks that are caused by a polluted environment are measured by income that has to be discarded due to illness or premature death. In real life, such estimates are difficult to calculate because they depend on loss of income.
(ii) Cost of Replacement:
People and firms invest in installing alternative equipment to protect air, water, and land from environmental losses. These investments can provide an estimate of environmental losses. In fact, the effects of these losses are difficult to quantify.
(iii) Surrogate Markets:
Environmental losses also take into account the effects on other markets such as property prices and workers’ wages. In the case of property, valuation is based on risks.
I Normally higher II and higher pay for tasks including environmental III risks
Essay # 4. Policies for Sustainable Development:
Everyone has full faith that all-round development and population growth in agriculture, industry, urbanization, and infrastructure sectors lead to environmental degradation. In other words, environmental degradation harms human health, reduces economic productivity, and leads to loss of amenities.
There is a need for judicious selection of economic and environmental policies and environmental investment time to minimize the loss factor effects of environmental degradation.
Let us describe these policies in detail:
1. Reducing Poverty:
The main policy is to remove poverty, so projects should be started which provide more employment opportunities to the poor. The government should expand health, family planning and education services, which will help in reducing the population.
Civil facilities like drinking water supply, sanitation facilities, good habitat in place of slums, etc. will be very helpful in improving the environment in the country.
2. Removing Subsidies:
In order to reduce environmental degradation without any financial costs, the concessions given to the private and public sectors for the use of resources by the government should be abolished.
In fact, due to these concessions, electricity, fertilizers, pesticides, diesel, petrol, gas, irrigation water, etc. are misused. All of these in turn cause environmental problems. The abolition or reduction of these concessions will benefit the country from all sides.
3. Market-Based Approaches:
There is an urgent need to adopt market-based approaches to protect the environment. They tell consumers and industries about the cost of using natural resources on the environment. Market-Based Equipment (MBIS) is the best policy.
It is of two types:
(i) Quantity based and price based environmental taxes which include pollution charges (excise tax/pollution tax), marketable mandate, depositor fund system, input tax/excise expenses, various types of tax rates and User administrative expenses,
(ii) Financial assistance for equipment related to reducing pollution for air and water resources.
4. Classifying and Expanding Property Right:
Lack of property rights over excessive use of resources leads to the degradation of the environment. This causes excessive grazing on deforested or public lands, deforestation, and excessive use of minerals and fisheries.
Environmental problems will be overcome by clarifying the ownership rights and periodic rights of private owners. Therefore, the rights of ownership should be completely clear in government records.
5. Economic Incentives:
Economic incentives related to price, quantity, and technology can help substantially. Incentives are often given to the users of the tools in the form of various charges for the number of pollutants in the use of air, water, and land. They are given if they produce less pollution than the emission standards set by the government.
6. Regulatory Policies:
Another weapon used to reduce environmental degradation is regulatory policies. The controller has to make decisions regarding price, the quantity of pollution, price, or means of use or techniques. The regulatory officer decides whether policies should target environmental problems directly or indirectly.
He sets technical standards and sets rules and expenses on air, water, landscapers. The regulatory authority should be non-discriminatory against public and private polluters or instrument users in implementing environmental standards.
7. Trade Policy:
Trade policy has two implications regarding the environment:
(i) Regarding domestic policy reforms,
(ii) related to international trade policy.
Domestic trade policy emphasizes the establishment of less polluting industries away from cities and emphasizes on environment-friendly processes by adopting clean techniques for polluting industries.
8. Public Awareness:
Public awareness and participation are very helpful in improving environmental conditions. Formal and informal education programs related to environmental management and environmental awareness are very helpful in controlling the degradation of the environment and keeping the environment clean.
Therefore, the cooperation of the people provides assistance in planting cost-free and useful forests, conservation of wildlife, an arrangement of gardens, cleanliness and water development system and flood control, etc.
9. Participation in Global Environmental Efforts:
In modern times, it is felt that participation in universal environmental efforts helps in minimizing the degradation of environmental degradation. Therefore, efforts should be made to enter into an agreement on the protection of the environment. It includes a Montreal protocol that aims to remove ozone-depleting chemicals.